Electronic music from Japan and US
Electronic music from Japan
The chosen tone cabinet with the Yamaha Magna Organ (1935) Yamaha Magna Organ, the first series of electronic musical instruments in Japan, was constructed in 1935.Japanese composers, such as Minao Shibata, were aware of the emergence of electronic musical instruments following WWII. Japanese composers began experimenting in music with each note detached in the late 1940s, thanks to institutional backing that allowed them to use advanced technology.Their incorporation of Asian music into the new genre would later contribute to Japan's success in the development of music technology some decades later.Following the establishment of Sony in 1946, composers Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata independently researched how electronic technology could be used to create music.Takemitsu had concepts that were comparable to musique concrète, but he was unaware of them, whereas Shibata prophesied the emergence of synthesizers and a major shift in music.Sony began making popular magnetic tape recorders for use by the government and the general population.Sony provided access to new audio technologies to the avant-garde ensemble Jikken Kb (Experimental Workshop), which was created in 1950. Toru Takemitsu was employed by the company to demonstrate their tape recorders with electronic tape music compositions and performances."Toraware no Onna" ("Imprisoned Woman") and "Piece B," composed by Kuniharu Akiyama in 1951, were the group's debut electronic tape compositions.
Electronic music from the United States
Electronic music was being made in the United States as early as 1939, when John Cage released Imaginary Landscape, No. 1, which featured two variable-speed turntables, frequency recordings, a muted piano, and a cymbal, but no electronic means of production. Between 1942 and 1952 (one removed), Cage composed five more "Imaginary Landscapes," largely for percussion ensemble, though No. 4 is for twelve radios and No. 5, written in 1952, employs 42 recordings and is to be realized as a magnetic tape. Three years after his supposed cooperation, Cage performed a William [sic] Mix at Donaueschingen in 1954, using eight loudspeakers, according to Otto Luening. [More information is required] At the Donaueschingen Festival, Williams Mix was a hit, making a "strong impression."Members of the New York School John Cage Earle Brown established the Music for Magnetic Tape Project. Christian Wolff and David Tudor Morton Feldman had a three-year relationship that lasted until 1954. "In this social gloom, therefore, the work of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff continues to exhibit a brilliant light, for the reason that action is provocative at the various points of notation, performance, and audition," Cage wrote of the collaboration. While working on the Music for Magnetic Tape Project in 1953, Cage developed Williams Mix..